Vowels with changing-mutation (Umlaut - with two dots on top) is read more narrowly (with more narrow mouth) than usual vowels:

schon (already) - sch?n ('шён' - nice)
Zug (train) - Z?ge ('цюгэ' - trains)

"A Umlaut" is read as э: S?le - halls
Y (юпсилон) is read as ?: Lyrik.

Letter combination of  vowels.

Weimar (ай) - (city) Weimar, Liebe (и) - love (underlined vowel means long vowel), heute (ой) - today, H?user (ой)- houses.

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W(вэ) is read as russian letter в: was? - what?
Z (цэт) is read as russian letter ц: Mozart
S (эс) is read as russian letter c:  Post - почта, but before (or between) vowels - as з: Saal - a hall, lesen - to read.
? (эсцэт) is read as russian letter с (this letter consists of two s).
F (эф), V (фау) is read as russian letter ф: Frankfurt, Vater - a father. In loanwords letter v is read as в: Vase - a vase.
J (йот) is read as й: Ja - yes.
R (эр) is read as russian р (south Germany) and pronounce one's "r's" in the French manner(burr).
H at the beginning of the word or root is read as exhalation: Haus - a house, dahinten - over there, and in the middle of word or root (after vowel) isn't read at all: gehen - to go, Kuh - a cow.

Letter combination of  consonants

Koch (х) - a cook, Fuchs (кс) - a fox, Schiller (ш) - a flicker, Sport (шп) - sport, still (шп) - silently, Deutsch (hard ч) - German, backen (бакн) - to bake, quaken (квакн) - to croak.

Suffix -tion (always stressed) is read цьон.

? or ss.

The letter ? consists of two letters s. According to the new reform of spelling, after long vowel or diphthongs we write ?, and after short vowel - ss: wissen- wei?, dass, gro?.

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